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01 Nov
2016

A RELIEF OF MITHRAS FROM THE VICINITY OF SOFIA

Author: Nadezhda Kirova

Resume

The object of the article is a relief of the god Mithras found not far from the city of Sofia (in the village of Gérman). It is part of the collection of the Regional Historical Museum of Sofia and is published here for the first time. It represents the scene of tauroctonia, i. e. the act of killing the bull. Such reliefs were in use in the mithrea all over the Roman Empire. Serdica was one of the main centres of Mithras' worship in the province of Thracia. The relief of the village of Gérman presents many particular features, very detailed and careful workmanship and could be dated as early as the second half of the 2 nd century AD.

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01 Nov
2016

RESCUE ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT 52, HRISTO BOTEV BLVD.

Author: Alexander Stanev, Vladislav Todorov, Emilia Evtimova

Resume

The rescue archaeological research at 52 ,Hristo Botev Blvd. gives the opportunity to make some con clusions: the terrain remains away from built-up urban area until the late 18th century. The artifacts from the 4th – 6th century. (figs. 6.1-9; 7.1-6) and from the 12th century. (fig. 7.7-9) discovered there are not to be relevant to the structures registered within the frames of the investigated plot. A riverbed has been revealed in its eastern part running from south to north. It contained Ottoman coins dating from the 15th and 16th century. (fig. 10.4-6). In the late 18th – early 19th century. an urban dung-hill was organized on the western floodplain terrace comprising the main amount of the pottery fragments discovered (fig. 8.1-10). About the mid 19th century. the river was drained up. Probably the rising groundwater in wet weather forced the residents nearby to construct fords of massive stone. In the second half of the 19th c. the terrain was covered with soil. Thus, archaeological materials found there were imported along with the soil from some other place (figs. 9.1-8; 10.1-3). Almost at the same time a flimsy structure made of adobe appeared there as well as a narrow street paved with stone, oriented east – west and leading to the central part of Sofia. In the 20th century. the eastern sector of the terrain remained within the inner yard of a massive build ing deeply rooted in the western part of the plot. Once again in the 20th and early 21st century. some new deep diggings and backfilling of the terrain were undertaken which additionally complicate the interpretation of the archaeological material. Despite the lack of cultural layers until the time of the Revival, the archaeological research contributes to the early history of Sofia.

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01 Nov
2016

SCHOOL COOPERATIVE FELLOWSHIPS IN BULGARIA (1899-1944)

Author: Alexander Mirkov

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In the end of 19th and in the beginning of 20th century in Bulgaria arose the first cooperative fel lowships. Soon the cooperative ideas finds supporters among school youth. Over the next decades spontaneously many buildings with diverse activities were formed. TThey received institutional regu lations and became an important organizational form of association of the younger generation in the country. The article is devoted to this little-known page in the history of native education.

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01 Nov
2016

SOFIA'S BUILDINGS OF ARCHITECT PENCHO KOYCHEV

Author: Associate Professor, Ph.D., Arch. Valentina Varbanova

Resume

The architectural creativity of architect Pencho Koychev is well explored in terms of his monumental works – Courthouse, health and educational buildings. Researchers devote less attention to its housing. The following report includes four residential buildings in Sofia, designed by architect P. Koychev between 1907 and 1926, probably when he when he freelanced. Their cultural and historical value was appreciated long time ago and they have the status of monuments of culture (cultural values). The research includes an assessment of their condition today regarding the authenticity of planning and spatial solution (including Upgrades), changes in the interior, architectural and artistic synthesis and technical condition. All of the presented buildings need a modern restoration interventions in order to represent the dignified work of architect P. Koychev to the future generations.

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01 Nov
2016

SYSTEM OF BUSTS IN SOFIA DURING THE SOCIALIST PERIOD. PAST AND PRESENT.

Author: Ilia Mechkov

Resume

The research has tried to follow the logic in the arrangement of busts and the choice of figures to be commemorated in the green areas of Sofia during the Socialist period (1944-1989). It touches upon the issues of park development and the future of the sculptures. The article gives overview of almost all 119 bust-monuments from the Socialist period in Sofia, and of the 18 from the interwar period in the Borisova gradina park. Ten tables are attached to present the bust-monuments in city parks and gardens and two more tables in appendix to present the bust-monuments from the Socialist period and those from the onset of democracy. The research has referenced the publications and the archives of Sofia History Museum and has borrowed original pictures of statues that no longer exist. The other pictures showing the current status of some of the ideological-motivated sculptures were made especially for the case. The sculptures from the Socialist period in Sofia are an element of a much wider commemorative concept that encompasses the entire city and fills it with heroic spirit and symbols. The choice of heroes to be commemorated, the combination of various types of monuments and the proximity of "sacred" sites are very carefully considered in order to achieve ideological impact. The socialist state, devoted to excessive generation of symbols, had already managed to implement its characteristic planned, mass approach to create a number of monuments on existing or developed urban structures, still standing today, thus the present values of this cultural heritage are to be found in the "good" examples of urban and park planning solutions.

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